Resources

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The following resources support discussions around histories and current issues in mass incarceration, whether in the classroom or other settings.

Curricula includes a curated list of readings around a variety of themes in incarceration history. Each theme includes a sample selection that would be appropriate for one week in a university course.

Discussion Guides are being prepared by SOI students and partners. They will include discussion designs, facilitation guides, and other resources.

(select one or multiple)

Teaching Resources

Contesting Mass IncarcerationDownload resource

Dylan Rodriguez, Forced Passages: Imprisoned Radical Intellectuals and the U.S. Prison Regime (Introduction, Ch. 1, 3, and 5).

Angela Davis, Are Prisons Obsolete?

Marie Gottschalk, Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics (Ch. 11 and 12)

Marie Gottschalk, The Prison and the Gallows: The Politics of Mass Incarceration in America (Ch. 10).

Robert T. Chase, "We Are Not Slaves: Rethinking the Rise of Carceral States through the Lens of the Prisoners’ Rights Movement," The Journal of American History Volume 102, No. 1 (2015) p.73-86.

Primary Documents:

Leonard Peltier, Prison Writings: My Life is My Sundance. St. Martins Griffen, 2000.

George Jackson, Soledad Brother: The Prison letters of George Jackson, Chicago Review, 1994.

Film: Black Power Mix Tape, directed by Goran Olsson (2011).

Discussion Guide: The ReturnDownload resource

The Return discussion guide includes information on “Three Strikes” laws and challenges to reentry, as well as prompts for discussion and a list of action steps and resources. This guide is an invitation to dialogue. It is based on a belief in the power of human connection, designed for people who want to use The Return to engage family, friends, classmates, colleagues and communities. In contrast to initiatives that foster debates in which participants try to convince others that they are right, this document envisions conversations undertaken in a spirit of openness in which people try to understand one another and expand their thinking by sharing viewpoints and listening actively.

Associated with the film The Return http://www.pbs.org/pov/thereturn/video/the-return/

Historical Construction of Crime and the CriminalDownload resource

Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (Part I: Ch. 1, Part II: Ch. 2, Part IV: Ch. 1-3).

Colin Dayan, Law is a White Dog: How Legal Rituals Make and Unmake Persons (Preface; Ch. 2-3).

Miranda Joseph, Debt to Society: Accounting for Life Under Capitalism (Ch. 2).

Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow (Ch. 3).

Douglass Hay, “Property, Authority, and Criminal Law,” in Douglass Hay et al., Albion’s Fatal Tree: Crime and Society in Eighteenth Century England (1975).

Kris Morrissey and Marjorie Schwarzer, eds, “Rethinking Incarceration,” Museums and Social Issues Volume 6 Issue 2 (Spring 2011).

1. National Museum of Crime & Punishment Exhibit reviewed by Paul M. Farber (91-98)

2. Alcatraz Island Exhibit reviewed by Lexie Waite (99-104)

3. Rotary Jail Museum and Center for the Arts Exhibit reviewed by Anne E. Parsons (105-110)

Primary Documents:

Film: Tattooed Tears, directed by Nicholas Broomfield and Joan Churchill (1979)

Immigration and IncarcerationDownload resource

Torrie Hester, "Deportability and the Carceral State," Journal of American History (2015) 102 (1): 141-151.

Aviva Chomsky, Undocumented: How Immigration Became Illegal. Boston: Beacon Press, 2014 (Introduction, Ch. 1 and 4).

Walter A. Ewing, “Opportunity and Exclusion: A Brief History of US Immigration Policy.” American Immigration Council: Immigration Policy Center (2012).

Nicholas de Genova and Nathalie Peutz eds., The Deportation Regime: Sovereignty, Space, and the Freedom of Movement. Durham: Duke University Press, 2010 (Introduction, Part I, and Part II: Ch. 2).

Mark Dow, “Designed to Punish: Immigration Detention and Deportation,” Social Research Vol. 74, No. 2, Punishment: The US Record (SUMMER 2007), pp. 533-546.

Alfonso Gonzalez, Reform without Justice: Latino Migrant Politics and the Homeland Security State. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013 (Introduction, Ch. 1 and 4).

Nicholas de Genova and Nathalie Peutz eds., The Deportation Regime: Sovereignty, Space, and the Freedom of Movement. Durham: Duke University Press, 2010 (Introduction, Part I, and Part II: Ch. 2).

Marie Gottschalk, The Prison and the Gallows: The Politics of Mass Incarceration in America (Ch. 10).

Stephanie J. Silverman, “Immigration Detention in America: A History of Its Expansion and a Study of Its Significance” (October 1, 2010). COMPAS Working Paper No. 80.

Julia Stumpf, “The Crimmigration Crisis: Immigrants, Crime, and Sovereign Power,” American University Law Review, Vol. 56, P. 367, 2006.

Timeline: Immigration and History Workshop – A Brief Timeline of Key Events (Yale Law School, Compiled by Julia Spiegel and Ed McCarthy)

Introduction to Mass IncarcerationDownload resource

Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow (Introduction and Ch. 2).

Christian Parenti, Lockdown America: Police and Prisons in an Age of Crisis (Preface and Ch. 1).

“Right on Crime Statement of Principles and The Conservative Case for Reform”

http://rightoncrime.com/the-conservative-case-for-reform/statement-of-pr...

Kris Morrissey and Marjorie Schwarzer, eds, “Rethinking Incarceration,” Museums and Social Issues Volume 6 Issue 2 (Spring 2011). Introduction: The Culture of Incarceration Marjorie Schwarzer (7 – 17)

See “Historians Confront the Carceral State: Special Issue,” The Journal of American History, Vol. 102, No. 2 (June 2015) for a number of very recent and great pieces on incarceration in historical context, including: Kelly Lytle Hernández, Khalil Gibran Muhammad, and Heather Ann Thompson, “Introduction: Constructing the Carceral State,” pp. 18—24.

Mass Incarceration and EmpireDownload resource

Laleh Khalilli, Time in the Shadows: Confinement in Counterinsurgencies (Introduction, Ch.1 and 5).

“The Disappeared: Chicago police detain Americans at abuse-laden ‘black site’,” The Guardian, February 24, 2015.

Cynthia Duquette Smith and Teresa Bergman, “You Were on Indian Land: Alcatraz Island as Recalcitrant Memory Space,” from Places of Memory: The Rhetoric of Museums and Memorials (University of Alabama Press, 2010), 160-190.

Film: Ghosts of Abu Ghraib, directed by Rory Kennedy (2007)

Profit, Labor, and Incarceration: The Political Economy of PrisonDownload resource

Michael Ignatieff, A Just Measure of Pain: The Penitentiary in the Industrial Revolution, 1750-1850 (selections).

Rebecca McLennan, The Crisis of Imprisonment: Protest, Politics, and the Making of the American Penal State (Introduction; Ch. 1; Ch. 2; Ch. 3; Ch. 10).

Michael Welch, Escape to Prison: Penal Tourism and the Pull of Punishment. University of California Press, 2015 or Jacqueline Wilson, Prison: Public Memory and Dark Tourism (New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2008).

Ruth Wilson Gilmore, Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Opposition in Globalizing California (Introduction; Ch. 2-3).

Public History and Mass IncarcerationDownload resource

Note: This list accounts for more than one week’s amount of reading; however partners can either plan one unit with a smaller selection of readings from each of the following public history categories, assign public history-related readings over several weeks, or focus on one of the public history categories.

Digital Humanities, Oral History and Collaborative Public History

Douglas A. Boyd and Mary A. Larson, eds, Oral History and Digital Humanities: Voice, Access, and Engagement, Palgrave Studies in Oral History, 2014.

Gregory Jay, “The Engaged Humanities: Principles and Practices for Public Scholarship and Teaching,” Journal of Engagement and Community Scholarship (2010): 51-63.

Mark Tebeau, “Listening to the City: Oral History and Place in the Digital Era,” Oral History Review 40, no. 1 (2013): 25-35.

Annie Valk and Holly Ewald, “Bringing a Hidden Pond to Public Attention: Increasing Impact through Digital Tools,” Oral History Review 40, no. 1 (2013): 8- 24

Contested Public Histories, Memory and Sites of Conscience

James Oliver Horton and Lois Horton, eds., Slavery and Public History: The Tough Stuff of American Memory (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006).

Tom Engelhardt and Edward Linenthal, eds. History Wars: The Enola Gay and Other Battles for the American Past. New York: Metropolitan Books, 1996.

Maggie Russell-Ciardi and Liz Sevcenko. Foreword and guest editors. “Sites of Conscience: Opening Historic Sites for Civic Dialogue,” The Public Historian February 2008 (v. 30, no. 1) pp. 9-16.

Liz Sevcenko, “Sites of Conscience: Heritage of and for Human Rights.” In Helmut K Anheier and Yudhishthir Raj Isar (eds), Cultures and Globalization: Heritage, Memory and Identity (SAGE, 2011), pp.114-123

Museums and Curation

Miguel A. Hernandez-Navarro, “The Curator’s Demands: Towards an Ethics of Commitment,” Manifesta Journal (2010/11)

Ivan Karp and Fred Wilson, “Constructing the Spectacle of Culture in Museums,” Thinking About Exhibitions (1996)

Maria Lind, “Selected Nodes in a Network of Thoughts on Curating,” Words of Wisdom: A Curator’s Vade Mecum on Contemporary Art (2001)

Prisons and Public History

Seth Bruggeman, “Reforming the Carceral Past: Eastern State Penitentiary and the Challenge of Twenty-First Century Prison Museums,” Radical History Review 113 (Spring 2012): 171-86.

Cynthia Duquette Smith and Teresa Bergman, “You Were on Indian Land: Alcatraz Island as Recalcitrant Memory Space,” from Places of Memory: The Rhetoric of Museums and Memorials (University of Alabama Press, 2010), 160-190.

Kris Morrissey and Marjorie Schwarzer, eds, “Rethinking Incarceration,” Museums and Social Issues Volume 6 Issue 2 (Spring 2011).

Includes the following articles:
Introduction: The Culture of Incarceration Marjorie Schwarzer (7 – 17)
The Prisoners Center for Reentry and Reconciliation Alan Mobley (19 – 24)
The Jury Is Out: Programming at Eastern State Penitentiary Sean Kelley (25–38)
Making Incarceration Visible: The Unfinished Business of Hull-House Reformers Lisa Lee, Ryan Lugalia-Hollon, Teresa Silva (39-50)
The Emotional World of Museum Educators: Teaching Himalayan Art at Rikers Island Marcos Stafne, Becky Gaugler (51-58)
Connecting—Inside and Out John Spiak (59-70)
Museums and New Aesthetic Practices Arthur Sabatini (71-79)
A Mother/Daughter Distance Dance Elizabeth Johnson (81-90)
National Museum of Crime & Punishment Exhibit reviewed by Paul M. Farber (91-98)
Alcatraz Island Exhibit reviewed by Lexie Waite (99-104)
Rotary Jail Museum and Center for the Arts Exhibit reviewed by Anne E. Parsons (105-110)

Carol Strange and Michael Kempa. “Shades of Dark Tourism: Alcatraz and Robben Island,” Annals of Tourism Research Volume 30, Issue 2, April 2003, 386-405.

Michael Welch, Escape to Prison: Penal Tourism and the Pull of Punishment. University of California Press, 2015.

Jacqueline Wilson, Prison: Public Memory and Dark Tourism (New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2008).

Data Visualization and Spatial History

Laura Kurgan, Close Up at a Distance: Mapping, Technology, and Politics, MIT Press, 2013.

Steven Pinker, “Million Dollar Blocks by the Spatial Information Design Lab.” Design and Violence.

Sarah Shannon and Chris Uggen, “Visualizing Punishment,” The Society Pages, February 19, 2013.

Richard White, “What is Spatial History?

Race and Incarceration (pre-mass incarceration)Download resource

Barbara Fields, “Slavery, Race, and Ideology in The United States of America,” New Left Review I, 181, May-June 1990.

Douglass Blackmon, Slavery By Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II (Parts I and II).

Khalil Muhammad, Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America (Introduction, Ch. 1, 2, and 3).

Film: Slavery By Another Name, PBS Documentary based on Douglass Blackmon’s book.

Race and Incarceration II (New Jim Crow)Download resource

Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow (Ch. 3, 4, and 5).

Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States (Introduction, Ch. 4 and 5).

Loic Wacquaint, “The New Peculiar Institution: On The Prison as Surrogate Ghetto,” Theoretical Criminology Vol. 4 (3): 377-389.

James Forman, “Racial Critiques of Mass Incarceration: Beyond the New Jim Crow,” Yale Law School Research Paper #243.

Marie Gottschalk, Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics (Ch. 6 and 7).

Jeffrey Adler, "Less Crime,More Punishment: Violence,Race, and Criminal Justice in Early Twentieth Century America," Journal of American History Volume 102, No. 1; 34—46.

Matthew Lassiter, "Impossible Criminals: The Suburban Imperatives of America’s War on Drugs.” Journal of American History 102 (1): 126-140.

Film: “Uprising: Hip-Hop and the L.A. Riots,” VH1 Rock Docs, Episode 137, 2012.

Film: Herman’s House, directed by Angad Bhallah (2013)

Remembering the age of mass incarcerationDownload resource

"In 2015, the US teetered on the apex of the age of mass incarceration. After four decades of imprisoning more people than any other country in the world, and than at any other time in its history, the US was, very slightly, beginning to reduce its prison population (Humphreys, 2016). A remarkable bipartisan consensus emerged that the policies that created mass incarceration had failed, producing a stream of public statements unimaginable even five years before. President Obama declared that “mass incarceration makes our country worse off, and we need to do something about it,” and became the first president to visit a correctional facility. Paul Ryan agreed that “I think criminal justice reform is probably the biggest [issue] we can make a difference on … there’s a real way forward on that” (Sherman, 2016). But before starting on reform, the “incarceration generation” demanded a reckoning. “Taking a hard look at this recent past,” wrote Michelle Alexander, “is … about whether the Democratic Party can finally reckon with what its policies have done to African-American communities” (Alexander, 2016). “It’s time,” conceded Bill Clinton, under whose administration incarceration rates grew by 60%, “to take a clear-eyed look at what worked, what didn’t, and what produced unintended, long-lasting consequences” (Clinton,2015)."

States of Incarceration ToolkitDownload resource

This toolkit in its original format and content was created by graduate students as a part of Erica Kohl-Arenas’ 2015-16 Participatory Community Engagement class at The New School’s Milano School of International Affairs, Management, and Urban Policy. While the activities can be used individually and outside of the toolkit itself, it is important to note that all of the activities and dialogue tools, as well as the introductory sections of the toolkit, have been framed and influenced by the authros’ experiences, learning, and research through this course. Any reproduction of the content should be credited appropriately. The authors hope that the information included within the Tool Kit inspire you to replicate, adapt and revise activities to suit your own communities and classes, but ask that you do not edit this Tool Kit PDF when distributing it for use during the States of Incarceration exhibit. Additional activities or dialogue ideas may be added through the States of Incarceration website.

Authors: Mesha Byrd, Hanna Campbell, Katherine Chang, Phyllis Ellington, Max Freedman, Carlos Rosales, and Myl Sanchez
Content Design: Katherine Chang and Mylanie Sanchez
Graphic Design: Kelsye A. Gould

The Asylum: Mental Health and IncarcerationDownload resource

Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason (Ch. 2, 3, and 9).

David J. Rothman, The Discovery of the Asylum; Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic (Introduction).

Erving Goffman, Asylums: Essays on the Social Situations of Mental Patients and Other Inmates (Introduction, Ch. 1-2)

Film: Unlikely Friends, directed by Leslie Neale (2013)

The Origins of the PenitentiaryDownload resource

Seth Bruggeman, “Reforming the Carceral Past: Eastern State Penitentiary and the Challenge of Twenty-First Century Prison Museums,” Radical History Review 113 (Spring 2012): 171-86.

David J. Rothman, The Discovery of the Asylum; Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic (Ch. 1).

Michel Meranze, Laboratories of Virtue: Punishment, Revolution, and Authority in Philadelphia, 1760-1835 (Introduction; Ch. 1, 4, and 5).

Jennifer Graber, Furnace of Affliction: Prisoners and Religion in Antebellum America (Introduction; Ch. 1-2).

David Garland, Punishment and Modern Society: A Study in Social Theory (Introduction and Ch. 1).

Bradley Chapin, “Felony Law Reform in the Early Republic,” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography Vol. CXIII No. 2 (April, 1989).

Film: The House I Live In, directed by Eugene Jarecki (2012)

The Rise of the Carceral StateDownload resource

Heather Thompson, “Why Mass Incarceration Matters: Rethinking Crisis, Decline, and Transformation in Postwar America,” Journal of American History, Dec. 2010.

Marie Gottschalk, The Prison and the Gallows: The Politics of Mass Incarceration in America (Introduction, Ch. 1-4).

Jonathan Simon, Governing Through Crime: How the War on Crime Transformed American Democracy and Created a Culture of Fear (Introduction, Ch. 1-2).

Naomi Murakawa, The First Civil Right: How Liberals Built Prison America (Ch. 1-2)

Primary Documents:

Film: Lock Em Up: Juvenile Injustice at Rikers Island Prison (2011)

Film: Mothers of Bedford, directed by Jennifer McShane (2010).

The School to Prison Pipeline: Education and IncarcerationDownload resource

Mariame Kaba and Erica R. Meiners, “Arresting the Carceral State: Educators must work to end the school-to-prison pipeline”, Jacobin, February 2014

Miroslava Chavez-Garcia, "Youth of Color and California’s Carceral State: The Fred C. Nelles Youth Correctional Facility." The Journal of American History Volume 102, No. 1; 47—60.

Richard Ross, Juvenile In Justice, 2012

Jonathan Simon, Governing Through Crime: How the War on Crime Transformed American Democracy and Created a Culture of Fear (Ch. 7).

Damien M. Sojoyner, “Black Radicals Make for Bad Citizens: Undoing the Myth of the School to Prison Pipeline.” Berkeley Review of Education, 4(2) (2013). ucbgse_bre_15848.

Amber Wiley, “Schools and Prisons”

American Bar Association, The History of Juvenile Justice.